Urna Zapoteca

Town zapoteca, Meso-American town belonging to the trunk linguistic otomangue, established from the I millennium B.C. in the mountain, central valley and in the part of the isthmus of Tehuantepec of what is at the present time the Mexican state of Oaxaca that had an outstanding importance during the before Columbus period and he/she received the influence of the Olmecan ones, that is to say, of the culture mother's creators that it began to flourish in the costs of the gulf of Mexico, in the bordering region of the current Mexican states of Veracruz-key and Tabasco.


Toward the century I SAW B.C., the zapotecs was in possession of a system calendárico and also in a writing way. Of they give it testimony the hundreds of trails with inscriptions that are conserved in Monte Albán's ceremonial center. This trails know each other as of the dancers", since the postures of the human figures with those that register such inscriptions, move to think that they are dancing. In that first stage of the development zapoteca they began to be built drawer tombs or rectangular in those that offerings and representations of the god of the rain appear Cocijo, deity that must take a very important place in the vault zapoteca. 

In the following centuries, according to the data provided by the archaeology, they can be distinguished several periods of ulterior development. In the one that embraces B.C. D.C. from the 300 up to the 100, he/she allowed to feel the presence of some elements that later would be developed with more force among the Mayan.

Of that time they come more magnificent constructions also, among them those of several ball games (locations where he/she was practiced the tlachtli) and some temples in Monte Albán and in other places of Oaxaca like Yagul, Teotitlán and Zaachila. To that period it followed that of the peak of the culture zapoteca, among the year 100 D.C. and the 800 D.C. that coincided with the splendor of Teotihuacán in the central region. It was then when Monte Albán's center arrived to its maximum bloom. 

Of they give it faith the temples, palaces, adoratorios, squares, ball games and other constructions that there can be contemplated. Besides Cocijo, god of the rain, was adored the couple of called creative gods Pitao Cozaana and Pitao Nohuichana, representation of the duality that he/she also appears in the other regions of Mesoamérica. In this period of splendor he/she already consolidates the presence zapoteca in those mentioned Yagul and Zaachila, and in other many places like Huajuapan, Juchitán, Figured Stone and some already located in the current territories of the states of Puebla and Warrior. To the period of splendor one of frank decadence continued. Another ethnic group, that of the mixtecos, occupied their main center ceremonial and it was imposed in a large part of the territory oaxaqueño. 

The zapotecas, sometimes subjected to the mixtecos and in occasions allied with them, they established their main city in Zaachila. In spite of their decadence, the zapotecas was able to conserve their independence partly and to leave victorious in several wars that had against neighboring groups, as well as to oppose resistance to the intents of the mexicas or Aztec that tried of subduing them. Only the Spanish conquest, in the first decades of the XVI century, put an end to the existence autonomous zapoteca.

[Versión en Español]

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